By constitutional mandate, the exercise of the Executive Power of the Union is under the responsibility of a sole individual called “President of the United Mexican States”, position taken by Enrique Peña Nieto since December 2012.
The election of President is direct and performs his duty starting the 1st day of December and has a validity period of six years. The Presidency of the Republic, the State Secretariats, the Administrative Departments, and the Legal Counsel of the Federal Executive Power, constitute the Centralized Public Administration.
The citizen who has been declared President or interim President by popular election may not be reelected in any case or by any reason.
The exercise of the State Executive Power works in the same manner. In Baja California Francisco Vega de Lamadrid takes the Constitutional Governor position since November 2013. The Governor and his cabinet shall be in charge of the entity´s public administration for up to six years.
The Legislative Power of the Mexican United States is set upon the General Congress, which is divided into two Chambers: the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Senators.
The Chamber of Deputies is constituted by a total of 500 deputies, 300 of them are elected by the principle of relative majority in a number equivalent to the number of uninominal electoral districts. The other 200 are elected by means of proportional representation.
The number of federal councils elected by relative majority that corresponds to each of the 31 States and the Federal District, is determined based on the percentage of population residing on each state in relation with the total national population. By constitutional mandate, no federal entity may have less than two federal councils.
In regards to the Chamber of Senators, the 1996 constitutional amendment introduced the principle of proportional representation for the first time, and 32 of the 128 members where elected by this means.
Therefore, now only three senators are elected in each of the 32 federal entities (96 total), thus the 32 seats remaining shall be assigned according to the principle of proportional representation, by means of voter´s lists in a sole plurinominal location nationwide.
The exercise of the Federal Judiciary is under the responsibility of the Supreme Court of Justice, one Electoral Tribunal, Collegial and Single-Judge Tribunals, and District Courts.
To appoint the eleven Ministers of the Supreme Court of Justice, the President of the Republic submits a slate of three under the Senate´s consideration, which upon the appearance of the persons proposed, elects the Minister that shall fill the vacancy. The appointment is made by the vote of two out of three parts of the attending members of the Senate within a non-extendable period of thirty days.
Every four years, the Council elects the President of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation among its members, who may be reelected for the subsequent period.